Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories
Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.
The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:
quality management system
1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;
2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.
First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.
This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.
Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.
V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.
In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:
1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;
2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.
3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.
If refuse the preposition “socialistic” in the definition of finances, we may say, that it still keeps actuality. We meet with such traditional definitions of finances, without an adjective “socialistic”, in the modern economical literature. We may give such an elucidation: “finances represent cash resources of production and usage, also cash relations appeared in the process of distributing values of formed economical product and national wealth for formation and further production of the cash incomes and savings of the economical subjects and state, rewarding of the workers and satisfaction of the social requests”. in this elucidation of finances like D. S. Moliakov and V. M. Rodionov’s definitions, following the traditional inheritance, we meet with the widening of the financial foundation. They concern “distribution and redistribution of the value of created economical product, also the partial distribution of the value of national wealth”. This latest is very actual, relatively to the process of privatization and the transition to privacy and is periodically used in practice in different countries, for example, Great Britain and France.
“Finances – are cash sources, financial resources, their creation and movement, distribution and redistribution, usage, also economical relations, which are conditioned by intercalculations between the economical subjects, movement of cash sources, money circulation and usage”.
“Finances are the system of economical relations, which are connected with firm creation, distribution and usage of financial resources”.
Denver Marriage Counseling – Denver & Aurora Marriage Counseling Services.
Fast Track Marketing – Leading advertising and marketing company for elective surgery practices and LASIK eye centers.
Uesd Motorcycle Parts for sale
We meet with absolutely innovational definitions of finances in Z. Body and R. Merton’s basis manuals. “Finance – it is the science about how the people lead spending `the deficit cash resources and incomes in the definite period of time. The financial decisions are characterized by the expenses and incomes which are 1) separated in time, and 2) as a rule, it is impossible to take them into account beforehand neither by those who get decisions nor any other person” . “Financial theory consists of numbers of the conceptions… which learns systematically the subjects of distribution of the cash resources relatively to the time factor; it also considers quantitative models, with the help of which the estimation, putting into practice and realization of the alternative variants of every financial decisions take place” .
These basic conceptions and quantitative models are used at every level of getting financial decisions, but in the latest definition of finances, we meet with the following doctrine of the financial foundation: main function of the finances is in the satisfaction of the people’s requests; the subjects of economical activities of any kind (firms, also state organs of every level) are directed towards fulfilling this basic function.
For the goals of our monograph, it is important to compare well-known definitions about finances, credit and investment, to decide how and how much it is possible to integrate the finances, investments and credit into the one total part.
Some researcher thing that credit is the consisting part of finances, if it is discussed from the position of essence and category. The other, more numerous group proves, that an economical category of credit exists parallel to the economical category of finances, by which it underlines impossibility of the credit’s existence in the consistence of finances.
N. K. Kuchukova underlined the independence of the category of credit and notes that it is only its “characteristic feature the turned movement of the value, which is not related with transmission of the loan opportunities together with the owners’ rights”.
N. D. Barkovski replies that functioning of money created an economical basis for apportioning finances and credit as an independent category and gave rise to the credit and financial relations. He noticed the Gnoseological roots of science in money and credit, as the science about finances has business with the research of such economical relations, which lean upon cash flow and credit.
Let’s discuss the most spread definitions of credit. in the modern publications credit appeared to be “luckier”, then finances. For example, we meet with the following definition of credit in the finance-economical dictionary: “credit is the loan in the form of cash and commodity with the conditions of returning, usually, by paying percent. Credit represents a form of movement of the loan capital and expresses economical relations between the creditor and borrower”.
This is the traditional definition of credit. In the earlier dictionary of the economy we read: “credit is the system of economical relations, which is formed while the transmission of cash and material means into the temporal usage, as a rule under the conditions of returning and paying percent”.
In the manual of the political economy published under reduction of V. A. Medvedev the following definition is given: “credit, as an economical category, expresses the created relations between the society, labour collective and workers during formation and usage of the loan funds, under the terms of paying present and returning, during transmission of sources for the temporal usage and accumulation”.
Credit is discussed in the following way in the earlier education-methodological manuals of political economy: “credit is the system of money relations, which is created in the process of using and mobilization of temporarily free cash means of the state budget, unions, manufactures, organizations and population. Credit has an objective character. It is used for providing widened further production of the state and other needs. Credit differs from finances by the returning character, while financing of manufactures and organizations by the state is fulfilled without this condition”.
We meet with the following definition if “the course of economy”: “credit is an economical category, which represents relations, while the separate industrial organizations or persons transmit money means to each-other for temporal usage under the conditions of returning. Creation of credit is conditioned by a historical process of fulfilling the economical and money relations, the form of which is the money relation”.
Following scientists give slightly different definitions of credit:
“Credit – is a loan in the form of money or commodity, which is given to the borrower by a creditor under the conditions of returning and paying the percentage rate by the borrower”.
Credit is giving the temporally free money sources or commodity as a debt for the defined terms by the price of fixed percentage. Thus, a credit is the loan in the form of money or commodity. In the process of this loan’s movement, a definite relations are formed between a creditor (the loan is given by a juridical of physical person, who gives certain cash as a debt) and the debtor.
Combining every definition named above, we come to an idea, that credit is giving money capital of commodity as a debt, for certain terms and material provision under the price of firm percentage rate. It expresses definite economical relations between the participants of the process of capital formation. Necessity of the credit relations is conditioned, from one side, by gathering solid quantity of temporarily free money sources, and from the second side, existence of requests of them.
Though, at the same time we must distinguish two resembling concepts: loan and credit. Loan is characterized by:
o Here, the discussion may touch upon transmission of money and also things form one side (loaner) to another (borrower): a)under the owning of the borrower and, at the same time, b) under the conditions of returning same amount or same quantity and quality of the things;
o The loaning of money may bear no interest;
o Any person may take part in it.
With the difference with loan, credit, which is somehow a private occasion of the loan, represents:
o One side (loaner) gives to the second one (borrower) only money, and _ for temporal usage;
o It may not bear no interest (if the assignment doesn’t foresee something);
o In it creditor is not any person, but a credit organization (at the first place, banks).
So, a credit is the bank credit. To our mind, it is not correct to use “credit” and “loan” as the synonyms.
Banking crediting is the union of relations between bank (as a creditor) and its borrower. These relations touch upon:
a) Giving a certain amount of money to the borrower for definite purpose (though, we meet with the so-called free credits, aims and objects of crediting are not appointed in the assignment);
b) Its opportune returning;
c) Getting percentage rate from the borrower for using the sources under his/her disposal.
The essential foundation of the credit essence and its important element is existence of trust between the two sides (in Latin “credo”, from which comes the word “credit”, means “trust”).
From the position of circulation of money forms (in the abstraction, historical process of formation economical relations and social budget and banking systems expressed by them) comparing different definitions of finances and credit, the paradox conclusion appears: credit is the private occasion of finances. And truly, from the position of movement of the money forms, finances represent the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means. Very often such movements are fulfilled without returning, but sometimes, it is possible to give loans from the budget for the investment projects of other needs. Also, when a manufacture or corporations use their cash funds and we mean the finances of industrial subject, such usage may be realized as inside the manufacture or corporation (there is no subject about returning or not returning of the usage), so gratis under conditions of returning. This latest is called commercial form because of transmitting the sources to others, but even in this occasion, it is the element of financial system of the manufacture and corporation.
From the point of cash means movement, main character of credit is the process of formation and usage of the funds of cash means under the conditions of returning and, as a rule, taking the value-percentage. If gating the credit value doesn’t take place (even in the exceptional occasions), according to the movement form, credit becomes a private occasion of finances, as from the net financial funds (consequently from the state budget) the loans which bear no interests may be used. If gating credit value takes place, by the appearance form, credit is discussed to be financial modification.
dehumidifierExcessive indoor moisture levels can damage almost any commercial or industrial environment. Left unresolved it can lead to mold, oxidation, and deterioration. Our dehumidifier rental services can help develop stable environments to prevent corrosion.
motorcycle accident attorney orem
fort worth personal injury attorney
Paladin is not a financial advisor firm and we do not derive income from your assets. All online investment advisers is an electronic filing system that facilitates Investment Adviser registration, regulatory review, and public disclosure of Investment Adviser information.
http://companiesinmississauga.ca/ Online Business Directory for Mississauga, Ontario
Business Process Transformation & Optimization : SLK Global BPO uses its proprietary business process transformation and process optimization framework to provide mortgage origination, IT and business process solutions.
Best Online Reputation Management Services PictoGuard takes care of your reputation by offering best Online Reputation Management Services that includes Image optimization, content optimization, removing negative listing on Google etc.
Torinomotorcycles.com.au Torinomotorcycles.com.au is one of the best Motorcycle Dealers in Sydney that offers an exclusive range of cheapest motorbikes. Visit us TODAY for more details or call us at 1300-468-674
Life House Financial
Get out of debt – How to get out of Debt – Debt Fix has a range of solutions to suit everyone and a proven track record. Chat with our Online Representative and Get out of Debt!.
Marketing for Small Business |
Calgary Mortgage Broker When you need a Calgary Mortgage Broker you need Dustin
Locker and Riley Specialising in bespoke decorative plaster mouldings, covings and cornices, Locker and Riley are the UK’s leading fibrous plaster experts.
renewable heating Innasol delivers alternative energy systems for the future – renewable heating for your home, smart grid solutions and virtual power plant technology.
Ottawa Car Accident : We have many years of experience as a lawyer in vicle accident claim, motor vehicle accident etc. We offer contingency fees to our clients to individuals help who not able to afford a lawyer fee. We arrangement whereby our firm will receive a percentage of the settlement which will depend on the nature of the case claim. For more visit us @ ottawa-attorneys.ca
Stainless Steel Fabrications : Broad range of Stainless Steel Fabrications available at Minshall Fabrication offers
Jane pushchair : Jane pushchair at www.simplybaby.co.uk
Central heating Telford odd group provides Central heating system installation in Telford UK.
Electric Scooter : Best design Electric Scooter avaiable at Playtimes UK.
pass4sure : Pass-4sure.com offers all Pass4sure certification materials with 100% passing guarantee. We cover all Top vendors like Microsoft, Cisco, Vmware, HP, IBM, CompTIA and many others. Please sign in and complete your Certification Today.
Accounts Receivable Factoring FlexibleFund.com offers Accounts Receivable Factoring
http://servicecheck.net ServiceCheck.net offers customer feedback Services with measurable and actionable reports that help businesses to know their customers better so that they can improve the customer experience. With 25 years of experience leading the industry, it provides excellent service to its clients.
ACCA certificate London
iphone 3gs 16gb – Unlocked iPhone 3GS 16GB is on sale at CHEAP price with HIGH QUALITY from cell phone wholesalers.Cheaper price @ 206€ for wholesale or @ 223€ for 1p.
RecordGone.com Criminal Record
Direct mail snap pack – Zairmail offers snap packs (pressure seal mailers) for more effective direct mail marketing and direct mail letter campaigns.
Buy to Let Mortgages : Buy to let mortgage is a mortgage arrangement in which an investor borrows money to purchase property in the private rented sector in order to let it out to tenants. Niche Advice provides complete solution to buy to let mortgages at best rate in the market.
Best App Maker
Business Law – If you need assistance for your business related issues and other commercial matters, a business law lawyer can be your ideal solution
college term papers
Smart payment plan reviews
Estate Lawyers Ottawa – Estate lawyers Ottawa concentrates in the areas of estate planning, estate litigation and estate administration with much efficacy.
Research in Lancashire : Leading full service market research specialists based in the North West Liverpool serving Manchester, Chester, Leeds, Carlisle, Newcastle, Wigan, York.
KBB Digital, an Australian Internet Marketing Agency in conjunction with Kochie’s Business Builders
aggreko If you are looking for commercial industrial strength air compressors to rent for your project, then you should look online at the Aggreko.com website for information about industrial emergency generators for power and much more today.
NetReah, an expert driven Digital Marketing Agency.
KBB Digital, check out their services
MLM Business – The 7 Business Factors Test of a Multi -level Marketing Business
So many people ask the same question: Is Multi-level Marketing a REAL Business? Is it truly a business that can produce a living and income? Is it a REAL distribution business? It is a business that operates for the customer’s satisfaction, and always looks to gain new customers?
Here is the answer: YES.
How and why does it qualify as a business? Every business has certain traits and functions that are needed to do business and stay in business. We have developed what we call the “7 Business Factors Test”, and you have to ask these questions to see if it qualifies as a business. All businesses, no matter whether it is a traditional business or a non-traditional business, (such as MLM), answer these questions in the affirmative.
What are the “7 Business Factors Test” Questions?
1) Does the MLM Business distribute goods and services of some type?
In MLM, there are goods and services that are distributed through personal distribution methods, and they are distributed directly to the customer, with no middle man. These goods and services can be manufactured by the MLM company, but usually are not. The goods and services many times are manufactured by an outside source, and then shipped by the MLM Business to the customer or distributor. Then the distributor can take the goods, and re-sell them to their customers as well.
2) Does the MLM Business have an official Office, headquarters, or structure that the business is operated out of, and with an address of some type?
All MLM businesses should have some kind of office or headquarters that the goods are shipped from, or at least in charge of the shipments getting to the customer. This does not have to be a fancy office, but one that can get all the tasks needed to run the business done in a timely fashion. They should have a visible address on all communication.
The distributor’s business is usually operated out of the home, and that counts as a structure that the home business is housed.
3) Is there an accounting structure that is set up to run the business effectively and legally?
All MLM businesses should have an accounting function and people set up to handle all business transactions. They not only keep the books for the MLM Business itself, but also the MLM distributor as well. The MLM Business from the home should have some form of an accounting system, for tax purposes, and for profit and loss statements. Accounting also helps keep the Company and distributor aware of the health of the business and how it is doing, or not doing.
4) Does the MLM Business have easy communication to get a hold of someone if needed?
Communication is the lifeblood of any business, and MLM is no exception. MLM Businesses usually not only have an order line, and a distributor line, but a general public telephone number that the public can get in touch with them as well. Usually at the MLM Business Office, there is someone to answer the phone as well.
And the MLM business should also have an email system that is watched, and taken care of, on a daily basis. This is not only for the distributor base, but also the customers and public as well.
5) Does the MLM Business have the needed business licenses and legal structure to do business in the states and countries they operate in?
All MLM Businesses that have been in business for any amount of time, must have the needed legal structure and licenses to operate in every state. If they do not, they will eventually be forced to cease doing business in that state. And most MLM Businesses have some form of a corporate structure that the company operates under. That could include being a C Corporation, an LLC, or a Sub S Corporation.
Even MLM distributor needs a business license to do business in their city, so they will not be penalized if they do not have one and are caught.
6) Does the MLM business operate on a FOR PROFIT basis?
Every successful business structure, traditional or non-traditional, should operate on a FOR PROFIT basis. Even the MLM distributor needs to operate on a FOR PROFIT basis. If the MLM business does not operate in a profit mode, and loses money continually, the MLM business will not be in business for that long.
It is the same way for the MLM distributor. If the distributor does not make any money, then they will not stay in business long.
7) Does the MLM business perform all of the needed business functions to increase business, including marketing, promotion, campaigns, running specials, advertising tools, customer service, brand extensions, research and development, direct marketing, increasing brand awareness, and keeping their vendors at an honest price?
Every MLM business operates to increase business, using all of the functions mentioned, and more. Even the MLM distributor needs to perform some of those functions, to increase their own business in their marketplace. These are functions any business needs to do, in order to stay in business, and enlarge it’s operating capacity.
Yes, an MLM Business is a TRUE business that operates to service the customer’s needs, bring products and services to the marketplace, and show a profit at the end of the year.
MLM or Multi-level Marketing, has passed the “7 Business Factors Test.” If an MLM Business you are considering does not answer all of the above questions YES, then you may want to consider seeking another MLM company that can pass this test as a Multi-level Marketing business.
Cheap Limo – We Have Comes Royce Phantoms, Light red Hummer limos, Bentley Navigator, we have the automobiles that will match your choice. The limos are available for a variety of events such as wedding day Seek the services of, bachelor’s party,Birthday Events,Stag Night time And party evenings etc.
accounting and payroll courses
telephone answering services Looking for the right 24/7 call center with live operators to answer your inbound customers calls & potential sales? Learn more about how Central Communications can provide your small business with just the tools you need to excel in call management.